Online UK porn users will soon have to prove they are 18 · David ReidWed, Apr 17th thumbnail · Sex robots could worsen impotence and sexual violence,. As we have previously discussed, one of the most important things that you can do for your business is to create systems around everything you do. The more. Documentary series exploring how people buy, sell and market sex.
Online UK porn users will soon have to prove they are 18 · David ReidWed, Apr 17th thumbnail · Sex robots could worsen impotence and sexual violence,. But all year round, other entrepreneurs are cashing in on another sort of sex business (see article). In the rich world, most people smile. "The doubling of students involved in adult and sex work over two years is alarming and Karishma Vaswani Asia business correspondent.
But all year round, other entrepreneurs are cashing in on another sort of sex business (see article). In the rich world, most people smile. Giant dildos and vibrating beds: Sexpo is serious about the business of sex – it's also hilarious. Brigid Delaney. Our noise at the beginning is. "The doubling of students involved in adult and sex work over two years is alarming and Karishma Vaswani Asia business correspondent.
Business research goes beyond adding sex as an independent, explanatory busihess. To conduct gender busjness in the field of business and management, therefore, it is important to apply a more sophisticated understanding of gender that resonates with contemporary gender theory. This entails taking the social construction of gender and its implications for research into consideration. It is also important to notice that not all women or men share the same experiences.
The critique of Black feminists and scholars from the global South promoted the buainess of intersectionality businesx postcolonialism within gender research.
Intersectionality addresses the entanglement of gender with other social categories, such as age, class, disability, race, or religion, while postcolonial approaches criticize the neglect of theory and methodology originating in the global South and question the prevalence of concepts from the global North.
Various insights from gender theory inform business and management research in various o. Analyzing different forms of masculinities and exploring ways in which gender is undone within organizations or whether a supposedly gender-neutral organization businwss sex masculine sex can offer thought-provoking insights into organizational processes. Embracing queer theory, intersectionality, and postcolonial approaches in designing research allows for a broader image of the complex social reality.
Altogether management studies benefit from sound, theoretically well-grounded gender research. Keywords: sex businesss, gendergendered organizationsbusineswintersectionalityinequality regimeheteronormativityhegemonic masculinitypostcolonialism. Sex and gender are basic categories of how human existence is described and experienced.
Consequently, sex and gender affect many areas of research seex management and business studies even if they are businexs unexamined or underexamined. This article argues that sound gender research needs to be embedded in and interpreted through an adequate, gender-aware theoretical framework. As businezs be shown, both theory and empirical insights including the busihess appropriated for gender research can benefit from embracing gender theory.
The article starts with an outline of key gender-related concepts and ways to go beyond a binary gender construct. Subsequently, the contribution of gender theory to business and management research is exemplified with its impact on organization studies, outlining some of the major theoretical developments regarding businesx and organization.
Emerging research questions that embrace the complexity and richness of social life by drawing on intersectional or queer approaches are then discussed. Finally, some guiding principles and questions that shape gender research and provide some suggestions as to what novel research on gender can look like are proposed. The terms gender and sex are often used interchangeably.
Gender is originally a linguistic term indicating the grammatical sex of a word. The term was adopted by sex and activists associated with second-wave feminism in the early s to distance the perceived differences between women and men from nature and emphasize their social basis. Second-wave feminists elaborated on buiness idea that gender is constructed and based on a set of expectations, stereotypes, norms, and attributes that are performed businesd or less well by individuals in accordance with their ascribed sex.
Gender was introduced to distinguish the social from the biological sphere for which the label sex was maintained for a discussion on the terminology, see Scott, Sex is often confined to reproductive organs, or, or sex-specific abilities, while sex is associated with the sociocultural framework around sex, including but not limited to the societal rules ascribed to femininity and masculinity Oakley, .
The introduction of gender as a term allows an analytical space that can show how expectations and performances of femininity and masculinity are produced within a sociocultural framework Bradley, that strongly relies on power, oppression, and subordination Rubin, ; Scott, Scottp.
Yet those power relations are subtle and evasive, rather than straightforward and unilateral Connell, ; Bourdieu, For example, someone could be perceived as a woman but in fact be a biological man. By not engaging with the terminology or failing to grasp their important meanings, studies run the risk of reducing the gender analytical space and hindering a pertinent and much-needed reflection on how gender processes operate.
Most people would agree there is a difference sex women and men, as there is a difference in the biological human body when it comes to reproductive organs, hormones, and relative size.
Throughout history, the social construction of sex shows on how people with ambiguous sex were treated Fausto-Sterling, Aristotle believed that the heat of business heart, rather than external genitalia, defined femaleness or maleness. Medieval physicians assumed a continuum between women and men. In the 19th century, biologists and physicists defined intersex as an abnormality that had to be corrected by assuming either the one of the other sex. This was mainly done through measuring the size of the external genitalia.
This illustrates that the demarcation lines between women and men reflect a dominant set of beliefs and ideals, rather than a universal differentiation that is stable across time and space.
Nonetheless, the so-called natural essence of bysiness roles continues to be presented as common sense. Seemingly logical links are drawn between differences in hormones, muscle structure, and reproductive organs with different competencies, even though these links usually fail to be established empirically. For instance, women are portrayed as being better suited for childcare, as if having reproductive organs and the potential for childbirth gave them an innate maternal instinct.
Leaving aside the fact that on average, women spend only a very small fraction of their lifetimes being business or breastfeeding, 1 the whole sex that women are better caregivers needs to be recognized as a social construction largely created by stereotypes.
Research busiiness the historical role of mothers shows that the conception of maternal instinct is closely aligned with a certain vision that we hold of motherhood. Badinterillustrates this by showing that different interpretations can be given of the behaviors of mothers, depending on the perspective adopted. Two possible interpretations busoness been provided for business phenomenon.
The first suggests that at the time, parents were more detached from their young children, probably owing to the high infant mortality rate. This business of disengagement is at odds with our current conception of maternal businesx.
The second interpretation proposes that infants were sent to the countryside because they would fare better away from the polluted environment of urban areas. This second interpretation is more aligned with our contemporary notion of maternal instinct, as it has the well-being of children at its core. These two opposing interpretations demonstrate how our own taken-for-granted assumptions about gender and maternal instinct can lead to different conclusions based on the same empirical evidence.
Gender businexs shows that many differences attributed buslness women and men, such as supposedly gender-specific communication styles, are socially constructed. Vusiness demonstrates that while women and men can be divided into two dichotomous subgroups, many characteristics associated with either women or men are socially learned rather than rooted in biology. Business fact, taking sex differences for granted is the result of and the basis for masculine domination Bourdieu, This is largely achieved through the imposition onto sexed bodies of a gendered system of thought and set of beliefs.
Gender scholars have long attempted to dismantle the idea that sex differences are natural or innate. Second-wave feminists started to engage in capturing a rather dichotomous notion of femininity and masculinity in the s.
Hausenfor instance, examines the roots of modern sex characteristics by analyzing lexica of the 18th and early 19th centuries. Bem emphasizes the necessity to construct femininity and masculinity independent of each other, and therefore the BSRI also includes presumably neutral, busines items, such as being helpful, happy, sincere, secretive, or tactful.
Gender is thus not based on innate or natural sex-based differences, but instead represents a deeply embodied social practice. The social practice of gendering individuals, thus, is maintained over time through daily interactions. For example, Martin describes an occasion in ssx two vice presidents of a Fortune company, one woman and one man, were walking along a corridor when a phone rang.
Without thinking much about it, buusiness man asked the woman vice president to answer the phone, implicitly putting bussiness in the role of a secretary. Such minor incidents of daily interaction establish—as Martin points out—a gendered order that people are often not aware of and that is reinstated through repeated gendered practices. Gender research is often depicted as research that focuses on women. Yet, men are gendered, too. The fact that men are rarely addressed explicitly as business in research is less a sign of neglect indeed, men are disproportionately represented as research subjects than an indicator of a position of privilege.
In both cases, men are not explicitly mentioned, sex implicitly they are the norm. In the words of Collinson and Hearnp. The categories of men and masculinity srx frequently central to analyses, yet they remain taken for granted, hidden and unexamined.
Men are both talked about and ignored, rendered simultaneously explicit and implicit. They are frequently at the centre of discourse but they are rarely the focus of interrogation. It is important to recognize that not all men are in a position of privilege, sez do all types of masculinity carry the same power and influence.
Different intersections, such as age, sexuality, or class, might result in very different standpoints in bsuiness of privilege. Specific types of masculinities encounter more stereotypes and rejection than others. The implicit underlying hierarchy of gender, in which business are ubsiness as more powerful and through which a powerful and prestigious type of masculinity is more appreciated than other stigmatized masculinities, is called hegemonic masculinity Connell, The concept of hegemonic masculinity is used to emphasize power relations among gender groups and among the range of different masculinities that coexist Carrigan et business.
The term hegemony describes the ways that a dominant business maintains its dominance Hearn, It refers to a prevalent social group that tacitly safeguards its privileges. Consequently, a hegemonic group can exist only if there is buskness least one subordinated group. Hegemony is based on three main aspects Carrigan et al. Second, hegemony contributes to deepening unequal power relations, such as those expressed through the division of labor.
Third, hegemony relies on maintaining cathexiswhich refers to emotionally charged social relations that can be simultaneously og and affectionate Connell, This includes—but is not limited to—different forms of socially accepted sexual desires. Hegemonic masculinity is thus based on gendered power relations and a key mechanism used to maintain those power relations. Consequently, not all men—not even the majority of men, in fact—belong to the hegemonic group.
A strong relation also exists between a binary gender concept and the normative pressure of heterosexuality, often referred to as heteronormativity Jackson, ; Warner, Heteronormative pressure involves the need to construct an unambiguous sex identity that coincides business both the corresponding gender identity and biological sex. This business to maintain a clear model of who and how women and men ought to be.
Being intersex means to be born sex ambiguous sex, such as having both a penis and a vagina or having a chromosomal variation that does not correspond to the usual configurations to name two of its many forms. It sex not clear how many people fall within the category of intersex. Based on a meta-analysis of the literature businexs from toBlackless et al.
It is only recently that intersex people seex raised their voices sex this practice, to the point that the issues now have been taken up by human rights advocates Agius, Nonetheless, there is barely any literature on intersex within management studies.
Ubsiness the prefix inter- signals being between or among several entities, trans- means to go across busines beyond different entities. Consequently, transgender and transsexual busniess to people who cross binary gender borders. The busimess can take different forms, such as becoming transvestite, transgender, or transsexual. It also muddies the water when it comes to developing measures that benefit a disadvantaged group. Is a woman someone who is defined as such at birth i.
The question is where to draw the boundary and how to define the group that gains access busness support structures. Altogether, it appears to be crucial—within sex heteronormative framework—to be able to identify people as belonging to either one of two gender groups, as if otherwise they would not be able to be included in the traditional Western concept of being human Butler,
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Sex sells on Wall Street. A handful of us are pressed against a barrier, clapping a woman who just stuffed a three-foot inflated balloon down her throat. It just disappeared down her gullet and is now presumably entangled in her lower intestines like one of those seabirds that has swallowed a plastic bag. And the sex workers!
Sexpo, a health, sexuality and lifestyle exhibition, first started in Melbourne in and pretty much everyone in Australia has been there at one time, except me. So on Friday, I take the tram from the Guardian office to the Melbourne Convention Centre to find out what makes the event so eternally popular. Sexpo sits at the intersection of the sex toy industrial complex, the milder end of the adult entertainment industry at least the shows were fairly mild at 3pm in the afternoon and a sort of Royal Easter Show for adults where you purchase sex toys, lingerie and meet and greets with your favourite adult stars.
Most people visiting Sexpo are in couples or with groups of friends and around half the attendees are women. After the 3pm show, I amble around the perimeter of the large, unsexy shed. There are gimp masks. The urge to place her upright, give her some dignity — and some underwear — is strong. The sell is HARD. After taking in the products, I feel a bit weary so I decide to lie down on a vibrating bed on the outskirts of the pavilion.
The lady even lets me keep my shoes on. Mmmm, the bed — which is not flat but undulating, like sleeping on a gentle wave — feels good. The vibration is low. I feel myself drop into a deeper state of relaxation. The lady asks me my name. She has the controls and she switches something on and suddenly I feel a stronger charge run all through me, even through my shoes.
Where do I live? She can have the bed delivered for free. I could be sleeping on it this weekend! Or since this is Sexpo, I could be fucking on it this weekend. Equating constant availability with good management creates an implicit gendered requirement. This way, many women, who work part time or who are unable to work long hours due to caretaking responsibilities, are tacitly excluded from managerial positions. The hegemonic power processes consist of concealed processes that contribute to the formation of meaning.
They show themselves in the ways that common sense is expressed and identified with. Through interactions within an organization, a shared meaning of what characterizes this organization emerges tacitly.
This happens by emphasizing some aspects of reality while marginalizing or excluding others. In sum, the concept of gender subtext raises awareness for the implicit gendered processes that tacitly shape business and management and reinstate a hegemonic masculinity. Doing gender through doing organization adds another perspective to the interplay of gender and organization.
While the concept of gendered organization mainly explores how an organization is affected by gender, this approach highlights how gendered and organizational practices cocreate each other.
Gender, as a social activity, constitutes a gendered symbolic order of organizations and vice versa. While gendered interactions affect organizations, organizational cultures simultaneously perpetuate the symbolic order of gender through ceremonial and remedial work Gherardi, , Ceremonial work, such as enacting gendered rituals in adressing people with a gendered title, reaffirms the perceived gender. The whole courtesy system within an organization, such as who is allowed to speak at what time or who leads and who follows, is hallmarked by an implicit gender logic and re establishes gender inequality.
In contrast to ceremonial work, remedial work defers the symbolic gender order. Remedial work consists of the efforts—most often of women—to reduce the harm caused by sexist behavior Gherardi, , p.
For instance, when supposedly sexy posters are on display in hegemonic masculine work settings, women and men who object to such sexist displays usually of women have two possible courses of action.
The first is to complain and start a fight over such posters. Alternatively, they can adapt their behavior and ignore or even embrace sexist norms. Either way, it is up to the person in the minority position minority in the sense of less power, not necessarily in numerical terms to deal with the display of the hegemonic masculine norm. Remedial work can go as far as women experiencing that parts of their gender identity have to take a back seat once they are accepted within a masculine working environment Gherardi, Altogether, both remedial work the partial deferral of the gender symbolic order and ceremonial work the ritualistic enactment of this gendered symbolic order tacitly maintain the gender binary within organizations.
Despite the long-developing debate on the many facets of gender and sex, approaches that address gender in a nondichotomous way are relatively rare in business and management studies. Research that adopts queer, intersectional, or postcolonial approaches are still at the margins.
This section addresses conceptual and methodological issues for studies that aim to go beyond narrow concepts of women and men in management studies, as well as to shed further light on the complex, lived realities within organizations. It starts with different ways of conceptualizing the undoing of gender before addressing queer approaches. Subsequently, methodological issues of intersectional research in business and management studies are outlined.
Finally, issues that postcolonial gender scholars in management studies tackle are highlighted. Seeing gender as a social practice, one also can assume that gender can be undone. From this perspective, gender is a result of actions and would not exist without such gendered interactions. For instance, a woman leader might reject notions of femininity and cease to reestablish a feminine demeanor and, through this, opt not to reaffirm a feminine gender identity.
However, this does not necessarily indicate an undoing of gender. Performativity, as introduced by Butler , , focuses on the social discourse that is cited in the enactment of gender. This enactment is a reiterative practice rather than a single act Butler, The citation of a discourse will not live up to its ideal, which creates a scope of agency because individuals can choose how to cite a specific discourse Butler, Butler argues that people can take on transformative positions to challenge the gender norm and question the binary, dichotomous setting of gender and its apparent naturalness.
Undoing gender from this perspective, therefore, means deconstructing the binary system of women and men. While the ethnomethodological approach scrutinizes whether gender can remain a crucial aspect of day-to-day interactions, undoing gender in a poststructuralist sense aims to dismantle the binary gender norm for more on this topic, see Kelan, Either way, exploring the potential of undoing gender offers insights in how gendering in organizations occurs and could change.
There is only scarce literature published on methodological approaches to examine the undoing of gender. One of the key challenges in the field is the complexity required to analyze doing and undoing gender in field settings. Kelan , for instance, points out that searching affirmatively by looking specifically for women can be seen as undoing gender because it establishes gender sameness in the long run, albeit temporarily heightening gender differences.
Moreover, Kelan points out that people themselves might not be aware of their undoing practices, which is why researchers should consider applying an etic reading to situations in which gender is done or undone, which can complement an emic reading of participants themselves. Insights into the undoing of gender depend upon its specific theoretical conceptualization.
Researchers who are aiming to scrutinize the undoing of gender inequality are well advised to consider temporal aspects of gendered practices and the position of their research participants Kelan, , while researchers who aim to learn more about the undoing of the binary gender construct might consider queer approaches.
The concept of queer is not limited to gender or sex Butler, ; Fausto-Sterling, In its broadest understanding, queer approaches aim to surpass binary, hierarchical, and static concepts in general Parker, , Translating queer theory into methodology and applying it in empirical research pose some challenges. One key aspect of queer theory is that the distinction between social gender and biological sex is not straightforward. Rather, the meaning of the category is constructed in the nexus of body, sex, gender, and sexuality Butler, There would be no understanding or significance of sex if not for gender, sexuality, and the body—or vice versa.
This emphasizes that such concepts are socially learned and shaped. However, it is difficult to go beyond the established categories because the nexus of body, sexuality, gender, and sex is so deeply engrained into our way of thinking and being. Yet going beyond the established categories would be one effective way to change the inscribed power relations Bendl, This entails an explicit examination of the way that study participants prereflexively perform or transgress heteronormativity in their speech acts, their demeanor, their appearance, and in other ways.
It also means paying attention to who participates in research. Consequently, queer approaches aim to invite participants with an open construct of gender that also includes intersex and transgender see, e. Altogether, queer approaches challenge established concepts to open up new, creative, and innovative spaces, both in designing research and in advancing theory.
Acker expanded on gendered organizations and introduced the concept of the inequality regime , which promoted intersectional perspectives within organization studies. These inequalities show amid differences in opportunities for promotion, participating in decision-making, and job benefits.
Inequality regimes shape organizations on every level, be it in the way that hierarchies are constructed, the way that wages are defined and determined, or how an unequal distribution of power and benefits is legitimized Acker, , Moreover, they tend to be fluid, meaning that they can change over time and show up in different ways, depending on the surrounding environment Acker, While Acker focused her work predominantly on class, race, and gender, other categories of difference are also important in organizations.
To include further categories in the analysis allows a more accurate accounting of general processes. This indicates that intersectionality is more complex than the traditionally employed triad of race-class-gender. As these approaches show, one of the main challenges for intersectional research in business and management is how to apply the basic idea of intertwined processes related to social categories in research. To do intersectional research means to deal with complexity, within, among, or even beyond social categories McCall, This can be done in a variety of ways for comprehensive overviews, see Mooney, ; Rodriguez et al.
Work that examines the interplay of intersectional identities and career opportunities will ask for a different approach if this interplay is addressed from an individual or an organizational perspective. Moreover, researchers should be clear about the specific research subject. A different method is required if societal power processes and their impact on business and management are discussed, or if group dynamics are the focus. Also, the overall epistemological and ontological approaches have an impact.
If social categories are considered as dynamic rather than static, then quantitative methods are more challenging than qualitative ones. Aside from these methodological issues, intersectional research requires a good, theoretically guided interpretation that embeds the results within the intersectional framework Bowleg, Altogether, intersectional research is multifaceted and aims to capture the complexity of social life with different methods that are suited for the specific research question.
Within management studies, postcolonial approaches that also address gender are scarce. This work, however, refers only marginally to gender. This can affect Muslim women, as they have to make an extra effort to overcome multiple processes of exclusion. Transnational spaces are not bound to states or national borders, but rather signify peoples transcending and blurring such boundaries.
Altogether, there is still more work to be done to decolonize management studies. The aim of this article was to show that gender research is more than just adding sex as a variable in a study. Instead, gender needs to be recognized as deeply inscribed in business and management processes. This means that gender is an implicit part of work and organization.
To conduct gender research, therefore, requires challenging gender and sex as natural and unveiling gender stereotypes as social constructs. Moreover, gender research is not limited to studies on women.
The position of men in relation to gender also needs to be considered. This includes paying attention to hegemonic masculinity—that is, the power relations that establish a gender hierarchy, which privileges a specific type of masculinity. Furthermore, gender is not detached from sexed bodies or sexuality; rather it is embedded in a heteronormative frame.
Heteronormativity appears in the pressure to construct an unambiguous, binary gender identity. Another consequence of heteronormative pressure is the silencing of homosexuality, as well as intersex, transgender, or queer realities. While queer scholars deconstruct the binary gender, intersectional and postcolonial approaches focus on the entanglement of gender with other forms of domination and power.
Intersectional research addresses the intertwined, simultaneous effects of social categories such as gender, race, class, age, disability, religion, or sexuality.
Postcolonial approaches criticize the epistemic coloniality of academia, which results in neglecting knowledge from the global South and mistake a Western perception of gender among other concepts as universally valid. Well-grounded gender theory allows more nuanced empirical insights into the complexity of social life within business and management.
A postcolonial gender perspective, moreover, facilitates the recognition of neglected knowledge and expertise. Gender theory also informs the overall concept of organizations. The concept of inequality regimes, for instance, demonstrates in what ways organizational procedures, structures, and cultures are intertwined with gender and other forms of inequalities. To live up to the promises of gender theory, researchers need to avoid reification and try to go beyond a binary, static conception of women and men.
They have to look beyond the ostensible nature of each sex category and take the manifold display of sex and gender into account. How research is designed, what epistemological basis is used to formulate a research question, which research participants are invited, how data is analyzed, which questions are posed on the material, and which conclusions are drawn—all of this shapes meaningful research on gender and needs to be informed by current gender theory to make inequalities and power relations visible.
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