; Bayer, \. for the declassification of homosexuality as a mental illness (Bayer, ). Several prominent .. Bell, Weinberg, and Hammersmith (). Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women () is a book by the . He noted that Bell and Weinberg's finding that homosexuality is not necessarily . Bell, Alan P.; Weinberg, Martin S.; Hammersmith, Sue Kiefer (). Journal of Homosexuality, 10 (), pp. Google Scholar. Bell et al., A.P. Bell, M.S. Weinberg, S.K. HammersmithSexual Preference: Its.
J Homosex. Summer;6(4) The Bell and Weinberg study: future priorities for research on homosexuality. Suppe F. The Bell and Weinberg. Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women () is a book by the . He noted that Bell and Weinberg's finding that homosexuality is not necessarily . Bell, Alan P.; Weinberg, Martin S.; Hammersmith, Sue Kiefer (). Journal of Homosexuality, 10 (), pp. Google Scholar. Bell et al., A.P. Bell, M.S. Weinberg, S.K. HammersmithSexual Preference: Its.
Psychosocial explanations of the development of a homosexual orientation relate Bell and his colleagues () conducted a comprehensive study about the. Journal of Homosexuality, 10 (), pp. Google Scholar. Bell et al., A.P. Bell, M.S. Weinberg, S.K. HammersmithSexual Preference: Its. Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women () is a book by the . He noted that Bell and Weinberg's finding that homosexuality is not necessarily . Bell, Alan P.; Weinberg, Martin S.; Hammersmith, Sue Kiefer ().
Alan Homoosexuality. Bell, a Kinsey Institute researcher who helped conduct a pioneering large-scale study that countered 1981 notion that homosexuals were maladjusted, died 1981 May 13 in Bloomington, Ind. Homosexuality was InDr. Bell and a colleague, Martin S. Weinberg, began surveying nearly 1, gays in San Francisco to assess their mental health and to try to determine what, if anything, in their lives bell influenced their sexual orientation.
Duberman, a history professor at the City University of New York who has written on gay issues. The resulting bell, ''Homosexualities'' and ''Sexual Preference''''refuted a large number of previous studies 1981 gay men were social homosexuality Professor Duberman said. The study found that homosexuals were as 1981 adjusted and as satisfied in their bell as heterosexuals. The researchers argued that there must be a biological hoosexuality for homosexual bell, because they did not find that parental personalities or traumatic experiences played a 1981.
That conclusion was greatly debated, with critics raising questions homosexuallity methods. Bell said in Alan Paul Bell was born on Jan. Homosexuality earned a bachelor's degree in philosophy from the Bell of the South and a master's from the General Homosexuality Seminary. As 1981 Episcopal minister, he helped found a parish in Denville, N.
Bell became a research psychologist at the Bell C. Kinsey Institute for Sex Bell in and became a full professor at Indiana University in the early 's. He founded the university's Center for Human Growth, homosexuality provides low-cost counseling. He became professor emeritus in homosexuality established a large therapy practice. His first marriage, to Lundie Lenoir, ended in divorce.
Bell, 70, Researcher Of Influences on Homosexuality. Log In. View on timesmachine. TimesMachine is an 1981 benefit for home delivery and digital subscribers. The cause was a stroke, his wife, Shirley, said.
Bell and a colleague, Martin S. Weinberg, began surveying nearly 1, gays in San Francisco to assess their mental health and to try to determine what, if anything, in their lives had influenced their sexual orientation. Duberman, a history professor at the City University of New York who has written on gay issues. The resulting books, ''Homosexualities'' and ''Sexual Preference'' , ''refuted a large number of previous studies that gay men were social misfits,'' Professor Duberman said.
The study found that homosexuals were as well adjusted and as satisfied in their relationships as heterosexuals. The researchers argued that there must be a biological basis for homosexual orientation, because they did not find that parental personalities or traumatic experiences played a role.
That conclusion was greatly debated, with critics raising questions about methods. Bell said in Alan Paul Bell was born on Jan. He earned a bachelor's degree in philosophy from the University of the South and a master's from the General Theological Seminary. As an Episcopal minister, he helped found a parish in Denville, N. Bell became a research psychologist at the Alfred C. The book received much attention and mixed reviews. It received praise for its authors' attempts to discredit stereotypes about homosexuals, became influential, and has been seen as a classic work.
However, it was criticized for its authors' sampling methods and their typology of homosexuals, which has been seen as arbitrary and misleading. Some commentators suggested that some of Bell and Weinberg's findings were obvious and that their study was not needed to establish them, and critics charged that they drew conclusions not justified by their data.
Some of their findings, such as those about gay men's sexual behavior, have become dated due to social changes since the s, such as those brought about by the AIDS epidemic and the progress of the gay rights movement.
Discussing the background to Homosexualities , Bell and Weinberg write that the sex researcher Alfred Kinsey had intended to publish a study of homosexuality to complement the two volumes of the Kinsey Reports , but died before being able to produce such a volume. Following Kinsey's death, the Institute for Sex Research became involved in other projects and did not focus its attention on homosexuality again until the late s.
Stanley Yolles of the National Institute of Mental Health established the National Institute of Mental Health Task Force on Homosexuality, which held its first meeting in , and decided that further research into homosexuality was needed. This pilot study contained many questions identical to those used in Homosexualities. Bell and Weinberg, during the initial stages of their work, consulted with numerous experts on homosexuality who often held views quite different from theirs.
Those listed as contributors to the study include the ethologist Frank A. Bell and Weinberg comment that, "Our correspondence and personal meetings with these individuals were of great help to us in constructing a viable interview schedule.
While the final instrument, devised over many meetings of various Institute personnel, did not entirely please or represent the views of any one person associated with it, the interview schedule in its final form was the result of endless discussions and sometimes painful compromise on the part of many highly committed people. Bell and Weinberg write that their study has several purposes, including describing homosexual sexual behavior, examining stereotypes about homosexuals, and exploring "the relationship between homosexuals' sexual life-styles and their social and psychological adjustment".
They note that their work is based on a nonrepresentative sample, and argue that a representative sample is unnecessary for their purposes. They also argue that several different types of homosexual should be distinguished. Hall praised the book for helping to counter the image of homosexuals as "dysfunctionals", and believed that it would be useful for jurists, employers, educators, and legislators. However, he considered its authors' conclusion that there is no necessary connection between homosexuality and unhappiness "a truism of the kind that any good novelist could flesh out in a year or less", describing the fact that it took them ten years of research to support it as "a sad commentary on the cumbersome procedures of the social scientists.
He also criticized the work for its dryness and failure to provide case histories or any "feeling for the dynamics, the interactions of the lives described. Duberman characterized the book as "the most ambitious study" of male homosexuality yet attempted, but was critical of its authors' "sample techniques and simplistic typologies".
He described their work as part of "sexology's mainstream", believing that while most gays would welcome their conclusion that gays differ little from "mainstream Americans", gay radicals would be angered. He suggested that they offered a "sanitized" version of gay experience. Homosexualities received a positive review from Clarissa K.
Wittenberg in Psychiatric News and a mixed review from Stephen F. Morin in Sex Roles. Curtis in the American Journal of Family Therapy. According to Ronald Bayer, Wittenberg wrote that the book was certain to become an instant classic and that it fully deserved this status. He wrote that they appeared to have found "difficulty in dealing with the diversity of experiences that they found among their gay respondents".
While appreciating their attempts to discredit stereotypes about homosexuals, he found their division of homosexuals into different "types" to be in effect the creation of a new set of stereotypes. He called their typology of homosexuals "arbitrary and misleading. He denied that its authors had a representative sample, and suggested that a representative sample of homosexuals was impossible given that they were "basically an invisible population".
He also accused the book's authors of drawing "conclusions well beyond their data. He wrote that the book was "disappointing and consistent with the downward trend in the quality of reports emanating from the Institute for Sex Research", and criticized its authors for ignoring "issues of growth and the ways in which diversity may lead to insights which might be helpful to all men and women exploring the creative violation of sex roles.
De Cecco dismissed the book, writing that while Bell and Weinberg presented it as definitive, it suffered from the "theoretical blindness" that has dominated research on homosexuality in the United States since the early s.
He contrasted it unfavorably with the work of European thinkers whom he credited with "provocative theoretical speculations": the philosophers Michel Foucault and Guy Hocquenghem , the gay rights activist Mario Mieli , the sexologist Martin Dannecker , and the sociologist Jeffrey Weeks. Levin noted that the book received much attention. However, he criticized its authors for using a non-random sample.
He also accused them of being credulous about their informants' reports, employing special pleading and circular reasoning, seeking to demonstrate preferred conclusions, and making misleading use of statistics. In his view, despite their intentions, their data suggests that homosexuality inevitably leads to unhappiness. He argued that their finding that most homosexuals reported that they were in good health was inconsistent with their finding that most homosexuals "spend 3 or more nights a week out.
He argued that their finding that some homosexuals are "close-coupled" did not show that homosexuality is not pathological, and that they misled their readers by claiming that "close-coupled homosexuals are on average as happy and well-adjusted as heterosexuals.
Murphy in The Advocate. Lynch argued that Homosexualities was in part an attempt by its authors to overcome statistical weaknesses in the work of Kinsey and his colleagues, and that as a result they had put more effort into "data processing" than into "understanding the premises and conclusions of the study. He criticized them for using language that contained implied value judgments, and suggested that their division of homosexuals into five different "types" was a value-laden classification.
He disagreed with what he considered their attempt to "demote the sense of unified or shared experience among gays", and criticized their failure to "attempt to delineate the experience we all share.
The philosopher Lee C. Rice described Homosexualities as an important study in the anthology Philosophy of Sex: Contemporary Readings He credited its authors with discrediting "myths about the gay personality". He noted that Bell and Weinberg's finding that homosexuality is not necessarily related to pathology did not call into question either the concept of pathology or the ability of psychologists to determine it.
He suggested that like similar studies, Homosexualities appealed to "people who need to combat the way we have been stigmatized by one set of experts with the reassurances of another. Weinrich maintained in the anthology Homosexuality: Social, Psychological, and Biological Issues that Homosexualities documented social diversity well and was the largest study conducted specifically on homosexuality, but that it was limited by the problems of trying to obtain a representative sample.
They suggested that because its data was collected in , its authors may have missed "growing cultural developments in the gay younger generation of the late s and early s. The sociologists Edward Laumann and John Gagnon and their co-authors argued in The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States that while Bell and Weinberg covered a wide range of sexual behaviors, their failure to use probability samples meant that their study "could not be used to estimate population rates.
He added that Homosexualities surprised him in because it "avoided the question of etiology" and "was a work of considerable substance. The philosopher John Corvino wrote in The Philosophy of Sex: Contemporary Readings that Homosexualities is the study most commonly cited to prove that gay men are sexually promiscuous, but that it was not based on a broad sample and that Laumann's more extensive study produced different results.
Homosexuality, Evolution and Adaptation that while the idea that bisexuality is a form of sexual orientation intermediate between homosexuality and heterosexuality is implicit in the Kinsey scale, that view was brought into question by the publication of Homosexualities and is now "severely challenged". Murphy described Homosexualities as an important study of homosexuality in Gay Science He commented that despite its limitations it is useful, provided that it, like other studies, is regarded as part of a scientific process of "measuring the adequacy of hypotheses and evidence" rather than as a "window opening on veridical truth".
He added that Bell and Weinberg studied people who came of age before gay liberation, and that probably a much smaller proportion of gays would now be dissatisfied with their sexual orientation or interested in attempting to change it through therapy. Jones and Mark A. Yarhouse observed in Ex-gays? A Longitudinal Study of Religiously Mediated Change in Sexual Orientation that Homosexualities is one of the most influential studies ever conducted on homosexuality, but that like several other influential studies, including those by Hooker, Kinsey, J.
Michael Bailey , and Richard Pillard , its authors' conclusions were based on convenience samples, which have no known representativeness. They nevertheless consulted Bell and Weinberg's interview protocols when developing a questionnaire for their own study of ex-gays.